Black holes – Those unexplained mysterious things in the outer space, which holds  lots and lots of secrets within.  Let it be there, We are not going to study those mysterious black holes now. You are going to sit back and enjoy the excitement of knowing the most exciting facts about black holes.Here we go,

1. Nothing Escapes from Black Holes – Not Even Light!!

A Black Hole With Singularity, and Event horizon Labelled
A Black Hole With Singularity, and Event horizon Labelled

BlackHole is the region in spacetime which exhibits the huge gravitational effects that nothing – not even particles or electromagnetic radiations such as light could escape from its inside.The region within the blackhole’s gravitational boundary , from which no escape is possible is called as  an event horizon.

Black holes are singularities:  points of infinitely small volume with infinite density. Such incredibly compact objects cause infinite curvature in the fabric of spacetime. and it will from a hole in it. Everything that falls into a black hole is sucked toward the singularity. At some distance away from the singularity, the escape velocity exceeds the speed of light, sometimes dramatically dubbed “the point of no return,” although the technical term is Schwarzschild radius or event horizon. At this point, everything is sucked inside the singularity, even the Light!

A Complete representation of black hole. Image Source: http://www.astronomysource.com/category/cosmos/black-holes/
A Complete representation of black hole. Image Source: http://www.astronomysource.com/category/cosmos/black-holes/

Once an object goes into the horizon, there is no point of return from the black hole. The black hole may possibly take it to a parallel universe or to a different dimension may be!

2. Black Holes are not Big as you imagine, They could be smaller than your tennis ball.

Black holes can be big or small. Scientists think the smallest black holes are as small as just one atom. The Below chart gives the details about the different types of black holes with their respective size and mass.

Black hole classifications
Class Mass Size
Supermassive black hole ~105–1010 MSun ~0.001–400 AU
Intermediate-mass black hole ~103 MSun ~103 km ≈ REarth
Stellar black hole ~10 MSun ~30 km
Micro black hole up to ~MMoon up to ~0.1 mm

credits: Wikipedia

Micro Black Holes – also called as quantum Mechanical black holes or mini black holes are extremely smaller in size and denser.

Stellar black hole : also called collapsars, because they are formed by the gravitational collapse of massive stars, their mass will be ranging from 5 to several tens of solar masses.The Stellar Black hole is the most commonly occurring type of Black hole.

Intermediate-mass black hole: they are a specific class of black holes whose mass ranges from several hundred to million of the solar mass.

Supermassive black hole:These are the very significant class of black holes. Thir masses Ranges from hundreds of thousands to billions of solar masses.They will be found at the center of every known massive galaxy and it will consume energy from the nearby stars.

A Supermassive Blackhole consuming energy from nearby stellars. Image credits: universe today

3. Black Holes are very old, that they are formed at the Beginning of our Universe

Sagittarius A* is the black hole at the center of the Milky Way galaxy. Credits: NASA/UMass/D.Wang et al., IR: NASA/STScI
Sagittarius A* is the black hole at the center of the Milky Way galaxy.
Credits: NASA/UMass/D.Wang et al., IR: NASA/STScI

Micro back holes are formed in the early universe, soon after the Big bang before our galaxies and planets were formed. These were considered as the oldest Black Holes in the universe.

Stellar black holes form when the center of a very massive star collapses in upon itself.The fact is this collapse might result in a supernova or a cosmic explosion, that led to the formation of these black holes.

Scientists predict supermassive black holes are formed exactly  same time as the galaxy they are in. Their age will be same as their respective galaxies.The below picture shows the supermassive black hole at the center of our Milkyway Galaxy as taken by Chandra space observatory.

 

4. Black hole acts as a Portal in our universe.

Consider universe spreads on the Space- time, Gravity is described by the motion caused in the curved space-time by the presence of the huge mass.

Gravity : Distrubance in space time because of the huge mass
Gravity : Distrubance in space time because of the huge mass

General Relativity states that an object with sufficiently compacted mass could deform the Space-time to form the hole in it.If A hole is formed in time-space, it is possible for anyone to escape out of the universe through

According to the theory of relativity, nothing can travel faster than light. Thus if light cannot escape, neither can anything else; everything is dragged back by the gravitational field. So one has a set of events, a region of space-time, from which it is not possible to escape to reach a distant observer. This region is what we now call a black hole. Its boundary is called the event horizon and it coincides with the paths of light rays that just fail to escape from the black hole.

Every planet/asteroid/star that fell into this black hole, will completely get trapped into it forever.However. it is believed that the object that fell into Black hole travels into the hole in the space-time of this universe and may be ejected at some other universe at some other time.Thus, Black holes can be seen as the Portals in Universe.

5. Information paradox – Any information of object is deleted once it gets into the Black Hole

Any physical information(such as physical size, shape, charge) of the object will be Lost when it enters into the event horizon of the Black Hole

The black hole information paradox  is very important puzzle resting in the hands of quantum mechanics and general relativity. Calculations suggest that physical information could permanently disappear inside a black hole, allowing many physical states to devolve into the same state.

This is controversial because it violates a commonly assumed tenet of science—that in laws of science information about any physical system at one point in time should determine its state at any other time. Thus black holes violate the very established law of science.

6. Black Holes are not that Black, They are Invisible in Reality!!

A Black Hole wouldn’t be Black, as we think.They are invisible because no light can escape from it. In fact, when black holes were first Discovered they were called “invisible stars.” If black holes are invisible, how do we know they exist? This is exactly why it is so difficult to find a black hole in space! However, a black hole can be found indirectly by observing its effect on the stars and gas close to it.

The actual Question arising now is : If black holes are invisible, how do we know they exist? This is exactly why it is so difficult to find a black hole in space! However, a black hole can be found indirectly by observing its effect on the stars and gas close to it. These stars will behave abnormally indicating the presence of the black hole near to it.

An artist's drawing a black hole named Cygnus X-1. It formed when a large star caved in. This black hole pulls matter from blue star beside it. Credits: NASA/CXC/M.Weiss
An artist’s drawing a black hole named Cygnus X-1. It formed when a large star caved in. This black hole pulls matter from blue star beside it. Credits: NASA/CXC/M.Weiss shows Cygnus X-1,

Consider a double-star system in which the stars are very close. If one of the stars explodes as a supernova and creates a black hole, gas and dust from the companion star might be pulled toward the black hole if the companion wanders too close. In that case, the gas and dust are pulled toward the black hole and begin to orbit around the event horizon and then orbit the black hole. The gas becomes heavily compressed and the friction that develops among the atoms converts the kinetic energy of the gas and dust into heat, and x-rays are emitted. Using the radiation coming from the orbiting material, scientists can measure its heat and speed. From the motion and heat of the circulating matter, we can infer the presence of a black hole. The hot matter swirling near the event horizon of a black hole is called an accretion disk.By this way, Scientists investigate the Presence of Black Hole.

7. The nearest black hole is 27,000 Light years Away from Us

There is no possibility of Earth becoming a prey to the Black Holes. The Closest known black hole  is the supermassive black hole – siggaritus A and it is present at the center of our galaxy, which is 27,000 light-years away.

This is fairly a Large Distance so that Earth won’t be affected by its presence. A recent Discovery confirms the presence of a huge supermassive black hole, at the center of almost every Galaxy in the universe.

8. Black Holes Grows continuously:

Black Holes continue to eat whatever comes inside its region and as a result of this, they grow bigger in size.

The diet of known black holes consists mostly of gas and dust, which fill the otherwise empty space throughout the Universe. Black holes can also consume material torn from nearby stars. In fact, the most massive black holes can swallow stars whole. Black holes can also grow by colliding and merging with other black holes. This growth process is what can reveal the presence of a black hole. As gas falls toward a black hole, it is heated to high temperatures, generating powerful radio waves and X-rays that can be studied by astronomers.

This doesn’t mean that black hole will swallow entire universe one day. Their growth will happen in reality but it is very very less when compared to the size of our universe.

 

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